How someone should go about attacking a claim, premise, conjecture, idea, hypothesis or theory.
1) Recognize the level of the thing you are trying to disprove or falsify. A scientific theory has a much higher degree of falsification than just a layperson with an idea.
2) Acknowledge that a scientific theory, by definition, is a confirmed model and is the most widely accepted explanation of scientific facts among experts.
3) Understand that while the onus is upon the person making the claim, in regards to a scientific theory however the onus is upon the person claiming that the currently held model is incorrect or is wrong. This is because the burden of proof has already been met by its acceptance as a scientific theory by the scientific community.
4) Present what you are suggesting is incorrect, why you believe it is incorrect, and the supporting evidence to to show that it is indeed incorrect. A mere assertion of something being erroneous does not meet the conditions to falsify the thing you are trying to disprove.
5) Be prepared for criticism against your claim and your supporting evidence, and take steps to properly evaluate that criticism and adjust your position as necessary.
6) Realize that you may actually be wrong if the facts go against you and be willing to admit defeat and concede that your objection may have been unwarranted.
Continued by GDC member input:
7) Understand that intuition is an inescapable and useful faculty of human cognition, but should serve merely as a springboard to begin collating an understanding of the subject matter if you want to formulate pertinent methodologies to falsify established science. Leaning solely on intuition invariably leads to faulty reasoning (yes, I’m also talking to YOU flat Earthers).
8) Concise language is required in scientific literature. In addition, nuances of language can vary between parties involved in debates, discussions, and interlocutories. It is imperative that correct language and terminology is used, and that all parties have a consensus of meanings and definitions.